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Malaria remains endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Haematological and biochemical changes that occur have been suggested as potential predictors of malaria. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic relevance of some haematological and biochemical parameters in predicting malaria in children in Anambra State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 248 symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Anambra State, Nigeria was conducted. Thin blood films were prepared for each subject and stained with Giemsa to aid the detection of malaria parasites. Their haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Haematological and biochemical parameters of infected and uninfected children from the communities and hospitals were compared using the Student’s t-test. Difference was set at p<0.05. Out of the 248 children, 46.3% infection was recorded in the community while in the hospital, the prevalence was 94.0%. In the community survey (household), infected children had higher mean value of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, bilirubin, total iron and PCV but the differences were not significant (p >0.05). The comparison of the biochemical and haematological indices, and the parasite density of infected and uninfected children from communities and hospitals in Anambra State, Nigeria showed that all the haematological indices except WBC of hospital and community infection did not differ significantly (p> 0.05), but there were significant differences in their Na+, total iron, SGPT and SGOT. The comparison of these results showed that the changes in serum levels of these parameters may not be associated with malaria infection.
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