International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 2021-10-22T02:17:22+00:00 International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE &amp; Health (IJTDH) (ISSN: 2278 – 1005)</strong> aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/IJTDH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in the areas of tropical medicine and public health research, reports on the efficacy of new drugs and methods of treatment, prevention and control methodologies, new testing methods and equipment. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. IJTDH will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. IJTDH is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. This journal has no connection with any society or association, related to Tropical medicine, disease or Public health and allied fields. This is an independent journal.</p> Bacterial Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Dental Caries in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria 2021-10-19T02:48:39+00:00 U. C. Maduakor N. F. Onyemelukwe S.N. Maduakor I. P. Udoh M. B. C. Chukwubuike <p>Dental caries is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases that are a challenge to health care providers. There is limited data on the bacterial profile and risks associated with dental caries in Nigeria. The study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria and risk factors associated with dental caries in Enugu. It was a case-controlled study. A total of 336 samples were randomly collected comprising of 125 healthy subjects and 211 patients with dental caries attending various hospitals and dental clinics in Enugu, Nigeria. Samples were subjected to standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. Standardized questionnaires were used to record demographic variables and risk factors. A total of 635 and 254 microorganisms were isolated from carious lesions and healthy subjects respectively. Of these 635 isolates, 218 (34.4%) Gram-positive bacilli, 210 (33.0%) Gram-positive cocci, 46 (7.2%) Gram-negative cocci, and 43 (6.8%) yeasts were recovered. Two hundred and seven samples were (98.1%) polymicrobial while 4 samples (1.9%) were monomicrobial. Among the organisms recovered, anaerobic <em>Lactobacillus spp</em> (141, 66.8%) was the most prevalent followed by <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>(104, 49.2%), and the least were <em>Actinomyces israelii</em> and <em>Capnocytophaga spp</em> (1, 0.05%) respectively. Of the 254 isolates from apparently healthy subjects, <em>Streptococcus sanguis</em> ranked highest and the least was <em>Porphyromonas gingivalis</em>. The factors that were found to be significantly associated with dental caries were level of education P=0.005, feeding habit P= 0.001, Favourite snack P=0.004, sweet consumption P&lt; 0.0001, type of gum P &lt; 0.0001, history of toothache P &lt; 0.0001, visit dentist P&lt; 0.0001, and the bleeding gum P &lt; 0.0001. This research highlighted the polymicrobial nature of carious lesions and associated predictors of dental caries.&nbsp; Hence public enlightenment and the implementation of oral health education in schools are crucial.</p> 2021-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Glucose and Lipid Profile Changes in Hepatitis C Patients After Direct Acting Antivirals Therapy 2021-10-22T02:17:22+00:00 Ahmed Hashem Sultan Mohamed Abd-Elrazik Sharaf-ELdin Samah Mosaad Soliman Reham Abd-Elkader Elkhouly <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Chronic HCV infection is associated with development of insulin resistance and therefore type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it is also associated with hepatic steatosis and hypocholesterolemia. The treatment by Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) leads to sustained virological response (SVR) in almost all infected patients and decreases liver-related as well as all-cause mortality in these patients. The evidence for the effect of DAAs therapy on T2DM is quite conflicting. Some studies agreed with the glucometabolic amelioration induced by the Sustained Virological Response (SVR) but other studies disagreed with this hypothesis. The aim of the work was to evaluate glucose and Lipid Profile changes in hepatitis C patients at 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12) by Direct Acting Antivirals Therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective study was carried out on 80 chronic HCV infected patients who are treatment naïve and subjected to HCV DAAs treatment (Daclatasvir + Sofosbuvir for 12 weeks +/- Ribavirin or any DAA available) with 100% SVR rate at 12 weeks with no relapse. All patients are subjected to assessment of Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and assessment of Lipid profile; Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL at baseline (pretreatment) and at end of treatment then they are followed up at SVR12.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Average HbA1C, fasting blood glucose has significantly decreased in group A diabetic patients from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12, Average Total Cholesterol, LDL has significantly increased in group A and B from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12 respectively. Average Triglycerides has significantly decreased from baseline to end of treatment in group A and B and to SVR12 in group A only. Average HDL has significantly increased only in group B non-diabetics from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Successful clearance of HCV viremia (SVR12) with DAAs treatment has been associated with significant Improvement or decrease of HbA1c and Fasting plasma glucose levels in diabetic chronic HCV infected patients, and has been associated with Rise in the Lipid profile; Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL (non-diabetics only) while it decreases Triglycerides in both diabetic and non-diabetic chronic HCV infected patients.</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##