Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Samples in Nasarawa Town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Y. U. Jibril, Y. Aliyu, B. O. Akwe

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v36i230137

Multidrug resistant strain of S. aureus is the most common cause of life-threatening hospital- and community-acquired infections. Multidrug resistant S. aureus infections contribute to patients’ prolonged stay in the hospital, increase in total healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality. This work was aimed at determining the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from some clinical samples (blood and urine) in General Hospital, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. All the 14 samples (7 each for blood and urine) collected in this study yielded positive for S. aureus, which were identified by cultural appearances and confirmed using conventional biochemical tests.The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolates indicated that, majority of them exhibited high susceptibility to gentamycin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (78.6%), vancomycin (71.4%), chloramphenicol (64.3%), teicoplanin (50.0%), and erythromycin (42.9%). All the 14 (100%) isolates tested showed resistance to oxacillin, amoxicillin (85.7%), and cefoxitin (78.6%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Nematode Parasites of Anurans from Three Cocoa Farms in Ondo State, Nigeria

M. O. Oniya, A. L. Adeyekun

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v36i230138

The research was designed to investigate the parasitic fauna of Anurans from cocoa farms in Ondo state. Amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of vertebrates. Many reasons are attributed to the decline of amphibian species such as global warming, habitat destruction and modification, others include: exploitation, pesticide use, introduced species, ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), pollution, parasites and diseases. A total of 31 frogs from 4 genera, Hemisus, Ptychadena, Rana and Xenopus and 7 toads from 1 genus, Sclerophrys were examined. 9 frogs were collected from Oluwateru farm at Iwoye Village; 7 frogs were collected from Folorunso farm at Ako-Igbatoro and 15 frogs from Obodulu farm in Idanre. 5 toads were collected from Oluwateru farm at Iwoye Village and 2 toads from Obodulu farm in Idanre. In all cases collection was done between 20:00 hrs and 05:00 hrs. Collected specimens were transported in sealed but ventilated containers to the laboratory where identification was done to species level. The frogs were anaesthetized until death in absolute chloroform soaked in cotton wool placed inside kill-jar for 3 minutes in the laboratory.  The gastrointestinal tracts were cut open and the contents of the various sections were put into separate Petri dishes containing normal saline.  The skin and the bladder were observed directly under a dissecting microscope for the presence of cysts and monogeneans. The parasites were fixed and preserved in 70% alcohol following standard procedure. Parasites recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the anurans include Cosmocerca ornata, Deising, 1861, Cosmocerca cummutata, Diesing, 1851 Paracosmocerca mucronata, Kung and Wu, 1945, Ampliceacum africanum, Taylor, 1924, Gendria liberrei Bain and Philipon, 1969 and Chenospirura asturi Hsu, 1957 Others were Procamallus brevis Kung, 1948 and Camallanus dimitrovi   Durette- Desset and Batcharov, 1974. Some of the parasites are zoonotic while a few others are established parasites of African fishes and water Birds raising probable public health concerns from the findings. Further works aimed at unravelling the biodiversity of hosts and parasites in the lush ecosystem of Ondo state, as well as identification of organisms involved in the life cycle are noted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Tithonia diversifolia and Momordica charantia Leaves Extracts against Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae Gile (Diptera: Culicidae)

K. D. Ileke, E. T. Obimakinde, C. M. Anthony, J. O. Olayinka-Olagunju

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v36i230139

Aim: Resistance of mosquito vectors and harmful effects of chemicals on human and its environment have been major problems encountered in vector control through the use of synthetic insecticides, thus there is a need for alternative insecticides of plant derivatives. This research is aimed at using extracts of Tithonia diversifolia and Momordica charantia against the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between the months of March to June, 2017.

Methodology: Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae were reared in the laboratory at ambient temperature of 28±2°C and relative humidity of 75±5%. The leave extracts of T. diversifolia and M. charantia were extracted with methanol and were prepared at concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%. The larvae and pupae of A. gambiae were exposed to these concentrations of the plant extract for 24 hours. Mortality of the larvae and pupae was monitored and recorded. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50.

Results: Date of this research revealed that at all levels of concentrations, mortality of both the larvae and pupae of this insect increased with increase in the concentrations regardless the type of plant extract used.  The leave extract of T. diversifolia having a lower value of LC50 (larvae: 0.20%; Pupae: 0.27%) was more potent than extract from M. charantia having a higher value of LC50 (larvae: 0.31%; Pupae: 0.44%) after 24 hours Post Treatment of larvae and pupae of A. gambiae. T. diversifolia had significant effect on the larvae of A. gambiae with percentage mortality ranges from 23.33-100% within 24 hrs of exposure when compared with M. charantia that had 16.67-100% of mortality larvae of A. gambiae.

Conclusion: The obtained results from this research revealed that extracts from the two plants exhibited great insecticidal properties against larvae and pupae of A. gambiae. Therefore, more exploration on the use of these plants for the development of insecticides at commercial level should be done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Prevention and Management of Child Diarrhoea in Urban and Rural Maseru, Lesotho

A. I. Adeleke, T. Mhlaba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v36i230140

Aim: To compare the knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers in the prevention and management of child diarrhoea, in rural and urban settings of Maseru.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Domiciliary (Urban) and Tlali (Rural) Health centres in Maseru, within the period of February to May, 2017. Data was collected from 458 mothers/caregivers, with 299 (65%) and 159 (35%) from urban and rural settings respectively. Scores were assigned for the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices. STATA 14.1 was applied to determine the strengths of associations between categories of the maternal characteristics and the outcome variables.

Results: Aggregation of participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices response reveal a statistical significant association with residence. The maternal age range of 30-39 years, P = .03, and mothers with three (3) children, P = .02 were significantly associated with the knowledge of prevention and management of diarrhoea in the rural area. In the urban area, mothers with tertiary education, P = .04, employed, P = .001, unemployed, P = .004, and all categories of monthly income were significantly associated with the knowledge of prevention and management of diarrhoea. For the urban setting, an association between mothers’ attitudes and monthly income between M500 – M1399, P = .05 was observed. The practices of mothers/caregivers in the prevention and management of diarrhoea showed no significant differences in the light of the socio-demographic variables in both settings.

Conclusion: The study revealed low level of maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices in prevention and management of child diarrhea in the rural and urban settings, hence the need to strengthen the existing health education messages on both settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Compliance with Standard Precautions among Healthcare Workers in Public Hospitals Abuja, Nigeria

Irene Esu, Chinyere Okeke, A. Gobir

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2019/v36i230141

Background: Health care workers are at risk of various occupational hazards such as blood borne and other pathogens infections in the hospital in the course of carrying out their duties. This study aims to assess the factors affecting compliance with standard precautions (SP)s among Health care workers in primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals in Nigeria

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 332 health care workers involved in clinical practices from 19 Government health facilities in North central Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling technique was used and data collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire and analysed using Epi-info 7 and associations tested using chi square test and logistic regression. Level of significance was set at 5%.

Results: Of 332 participants interviewed, knowledge was above average in 274 (82.6%) of the respondents out of which 141 (42.5%) had good knowledge and 133 (40.1%) had fair knowledge. Majority of the respondents (76.2%) were compliant with SPs. Factors significantly affecting health care worker’s compliance type of health facility (p=0.022) and years of practice (p=0.044).

Conclusion: Health care workers in primary health facilities were less likely to be compliant with standard precautions than those in tertiary health facilities. Training on infection prevention and control, was recommended.