Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic Effects of Cymbopogon citratus Ethanol Leaves' Extract and Its Fractions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

Joyce Temu, Haikael D. Martin, Elingarami Sauli

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230408

Varieties of plants, including Cymbopogon citratus, are traditionally used in controlling hyperglycemia by either stimulating insulin secretion, inhibition α- Glucosidase or α-amylase activity. This study evaluated hypoglycemic effects of Cymbopogon citratus ethanol leaves' extract and its fractions  in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Cymbopogon citratus leaves were shade dried, grinded into fine powder and then extracted by cold maceration using ethanol. Fractionation was done by VLC using dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. OGTT was performed for both crude extract and fractions. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate (170 mg/kilogram body weight). The mice were treated with ethyl acetate fraction once daily at 400 mg/kilogram body weight dose for the period of 20 days.FBG and weight were then recorded in days 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 after six hours of fasting. Safety of crude water extract and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated in mice by using Lorke’s method, followed by 5 days observation for their mortality and behavioral changes. Comparisons of results among groups were analyzed using One-way ANOVA. The difference between the means of the two population groups (each against negative control) was considered significant at p< 0.05. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Both crude and ethyl acetate fractions from C. citratus showed significant hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, higher hypoglycemic activity was shown by ethyl acetate fraction (p = 0.004). No mortality was observed at 5000 mg/kilogram body weight dose but sleeping and tremor were observed at a 1000 -5000 mg/kilogram body weight dose. Good hypoglycemic and safety results from ethyl acetate fraction highly suggest that Cymbopogon citratus extracts are effective against insulin-dependent hyperglycemia, which may be contributed by the action of screened  alkaloids, saponins, antraquinone, phenol and tannins. Isolation and testing of the active ingredients from the C. citratus extract are thus warranted for use in developing pharmaceutical anti-hyperglycemic drugs from this herbal plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites/Malaria Co-Infections and their Associated Risk Factors in Melong and Denzo, Littoral Region- Cameroon)

Ebanga Echi Joan Eyong, Makebe Sylvie, Gangue Tiburce, Yana Wenceslas

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 26-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230410

Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites/malaria co-infections and their associated risk factors in Melong and Denzo, Littoral region- Cameroon

Materials and Methods: Study period was from November 2019-March 2020. Blood samples were collected after informed consent by finger pricking. Stool samples were examined using normal saline and the Kato-Katz technique for the presence and intensity of IPs. Thick blood films were prepared, Giemsa-stained and examined under x100 for the presence of parasites and estimate GMPD. A structured questionnaire was filled out to obtain information on different factors which might predispose participants to become infected. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23 at P<0.05.

Results: The overall prevalence of IP was 28.3% (113/400). Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent IP 22.0% (88/400) and it was significantly more in Melong (27.7%, 76/274) than in Denzo (9.5%, 12/126), (P=0.001). The overall prevalence of malaria was 66.5% (266/400). The prevalence of malaria was higher in Denzo (79.3%, 100/126) than in Melong (60.5, 166/274), P=0.001. Children ≤5 years recorded the highest (75.4%, 83/110) prevalence of malaria, and the difference between age groups was significant, p=0.016. The overall prevalence of co-infections was 16.3% (65/400). Low access to bed nets, presence of bushes and water bodies, poor drinking water source and lack of personal and community hygiene are the associated risk factors leading to co-infection of malaria and intestinal parasites.

Conclusion: Intestinal parasites/malaria co-infections are still a cause of morbidity and mortality in Cameroon; interventions targeting groups at risk will help reduce the burden of these diseases in Melong and Denzo localities.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Reliability of Some Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Predicting Uncomplicated Malaria Parasite Infection among Children in Anambra State, Nigeria

Okeke, Obiageli Panthe, Ononye Benjamin Uzonna, Imakwu, Cyril Ali, Chukwuebuka Uzochukwu Uzochukwu, Amana Gabriel Unekwu, Udeh, Nwabundo Peace, Eyo, Joseph Effiong, Okafor, Fabian Chukwuemenam, Aniekwe, Maduabuchi Isaac

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230411

Malaria remains endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Haematological and biochemical changes that occur have been suggested as potential predictors of malaria. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic relevance of some haematological and biochemical parameters in predicting malaria in children in Anambra State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 248 symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Anambra State, Nigeria was conducted. Thin blood films were prepared for each subject and stained with Giemsa to aid the detection of malaria parasites. Their haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Haematological and biochemical parameters of infected and uninfected children from the communities and hospitals were compared using the Student’s t-test. Difference was set at p<0.05. Out of the 248 children, 46.3% infection was recorded in the community while in the hospital, the prevalence was 94.0%. In the community survey (household), infected children had higher mean value of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, bilirubin, total iron and PCV but the differences were not significant (p >0.05). The comparison of the biochemical and haematological indices, and the parasite density of infected and uninfected children from communities and hospitals in Anambra State, Nigeria showed that all the haematological indices except WBC of hospital and community infection did not differ significantly (p> 0.05), but there were significant differences in their Na+, total iron, SGPT and SGOT. The comparison of these results showed that the changes in serum levels of these parameters may not be associated with malaria infection.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Socioeconomic Determinants of Malaria in Selected Urban and Rural Areas in Anambra State, Nigeria

C. C. Nduka, H. N. Chineke, P. O. Adogu, A. F. Chizoba

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 53-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230412

Malaria, a disease of poverty, is of significant public health concern. It is endemic in Nigeria with the risk of transmission appearing to be high because of favorable climatic and environmental factors. Increased susceptibility to malaria has also been linked to dirty surroundings that favor the breeding and propagation of the vector, poor access to quality health care and ignorance especially of malaria prevention strategies. However, this study investigated the role of socioeconomic factors responsible for the observed difference in malaria prevalence between selected rural and urban areas of Anambra, Nigeria. A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study, data on demographic and socioeconomic variables were collected from 202 urban and rural respondents, then analyzed using SPSS platform to generate chi-square test of significance. The results were presented in figures, table and charts for clarity. All the subjects were aware of the term malaria but only 63.4% had adequate specific knowledge of malaria. Generally, 25.7% of rural participants had no formal education while the urban group had only 4% of that particular category. About 52.5% of rural participants earned below 50,000 naira monthly, with 14.9% earning above 100,000 naira while the reverse was the case in the urban area. Also, the number of malaria episodes was inversely proportional to the household monthly income (X2=24.30, p<0.001). More episodes of malaria were also reported among the unskilled workers and skilled workers (71.3%) compared to Professionals (28.7%), yet all the participants reported the presence of a healthcare facility <3km from their houses with 95% and 80.2% of them in the rural and urban areas respectively having to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare services. It is clear that socioeconomic factors play a role in the persistence of malaria as an endemic disease in Nigeria. Therefore, existing control measures should incorporate strategies to end poverty and ignorance especially among the rural populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Worm-free Cooking, Fish Safety: Recommendation to Strategy for Opisthorchiasis Prevention Program

Rungrueng Kitphati, Thitima Wongsaroj, Choosak Nithikathkul

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230413

Fish-borne parasitic zoonosis such as Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and Me Kong Basin region including Thailand. The focal point of Opisthorchiasis is located in north-eastern part of Thailand, along with high prevalence coincidence of cholangiocarcinoma, a major primary carcinoma of the liver with a very poor prognosis. Opisthorchis viverrini infection caused by developed cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini infection is acquired by eating raw or partially cooked fish. In endemic areas, several food preparations contain uncooked or raw freshwater fish. The most common local freshwater fish used for this recipe are Koi Pla, Pla Som, Lab Pla and Pla Yang or Grill fish. Raw fish dishes are known to be associated with the risk of liver fluke infection due to the consumption of cyprinoid fish that contains metacercaria of O. viverrini. Grill fish and Lab-Pla are among the famous Thai traditional food in the northeastern and northern part of Thailand. The consumption of raw Grill fish can lead to    O. viverrini infection because cyprinoid fish is a second intermediate host of O. viverrini.  This study investigated the literature of previous working for prevention and control of Opisthorchiasis and confirm worm-free cooking safety of cooking with consideration of time for the preparation of freshwater fish-grill for the prevention and control of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma infection. The unique experiment experimental designed. The freshwater fishes grill within the group of 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 minutes with 10 fresh water fishes from fisherman in Nakhon Phanom and Sakhon Nakorn provinces which reported high O. viverrini infection among risk people in 2009. The another experiment using frozen freshwater fish at -10 degree for 5 days. The results showed that metacercariae remained active in control and 1-2 minutes experimental groups. The groups 3-5 minutes of grill fish partially cooked showed inactive metacercariae. The excretory bladder spread with unclear form. The conclusion suggested that worm-free cooking under review, and unique experiment of cook safety is a crucial basic knowledge leading to bringing knowledge, practically for the prevention and control Liver fluke infection. Recommendation information also let people better understand the concerns during health literacy program to stop transmission of liver fluke and need to be discussed among head villagers, public health agencies and teachers in the public participation process and school health program. 

Open Access Review Article

Diagnosis Challenges and Control Strategies of Transboundary Diseases Presenting with Respiratory Signs in Small Ruminants in Developing Countries: Emphasis on Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia and Peste Des Petits Ruminants

A. C. Chota, G. M. Shirima, L. J. M. Kusiluka

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 12-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2230409

Aims: To review the diagnosis challenges and control strategies of the diseases presenting with respiratory signs. The emphasis being more on two transboundary animal diseases of small ruminants; contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Clinical signs and postmortem lesions associated with the two diseases were also explicated.

Study Design: Review.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Global Health, School of Life Science and Bio-Engineering (LiSBE), Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) from December 2017 to June 2020.

Methodology: A comprehensive review was carried out following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 506 articles, handbooks, Master’s and PhD thesis and conference proceedings were collected and after removal of the duplicates 80.6% (424/526) passed the first stage. Of the remaining search materials, (n=291) were removed including handbooks, master’s and PhD thesis which did not originate from the developing countries, 31.4% (133/424) passed the second. Of the articles that passed the second stage, (n=85) were removed from the study, these included all articles that did not involve field diagnosis such as review papers and those not originating from the developing countries, 36.1% (48/133) passed the third stage. In the fourth stage, (n=5) articles which reported on retrospective cases and archived samples were removed and 43 articles were reviewed.

Results: Out of the 526 documents retrieved, 43 were eligible for review as they met all criteria for inclusion. Control strategies were recommended in 44.2% (19/43) of the articles of which most of them 63.2%, 12/19) recommended vaccination as a control strategy. Most of the articles reported definitive diagnosis reached following laboratory involvement as majority of them involved outbreak investigation or research works which is not the case in routine diagnosis. The major clinical signs mentioned in the review articles including fever 60.9% (14/23), oculonasal discharge 87.0% (20/23), respiratory distress 82.6% (19/23), erosive stomatitis 43.5% (10/23), diarrhea 56.5% (13/23) and coughing 30.4% (7/23) have been discussed relating to the definitive diagnosis reached in reporting articles. On the other hand, postmortem lesions including lung consolidation 38.1% (8/21), intestinal hemorrhage 38.1% (8/21), lung congestion 28.6% (6/21), serofibrinous pleurisy 28.6% (6/21), pneumonic lungs 23.8% (5/21) and unilateral lung inflammation 14.3% (3/21), have been discussed in relation to the definitive diagnosis reached. 

Conclusion: Despite the similarities in clinical signs and postmortem lesions associated with diseases presenting with respiratory signs, definitive diagnosis of CCPP was reached in cases that involved clinical signs and postmortem lesions confined in the respiratory system whereas, PPR was more diagnosed in cases that presented with clinical signs and postmortem lesions associating the digestive system. However, presence of respiratory signs in the cases the diagnosed PPR may implicate presence of unidentified secondary bacterial infections. Vaccinations being the most advocated approach of control, require a broader look to make sure that polyvalent vaccines are available against the four common diseases. Also, use of treatment to reduce the effect of secondary infecting bacteria may be of help. Furthermore, for effective outcomes of the control strategies, collaborative efforts among countries at risk should be advocated.