Open Access Systematic Review Article

Update Research of Virtual Reality Technology on Children with Autism

Juan Liu, Zhaoyu Yang, Wenyan Jiao, Yonglin Liu, Xuchun Meng, Dan Wang, Wenlu Han, Fuyong Jiao

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 29-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2430423

Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by communication, communication disorder, narrow interest and stereotyped behavior. Existing studies have shown that VR (Virtual Reality) technology may have some unique advantages in interfering with children with autism. VR technology refers to the construction of an artificial, realistic, and multi-sensory virtual world through computers and other devices. In the aspect of auxiliary diagnosis, VR technology provides a unified observation standard through the manual foot movement and eye movement data of children in the virtual environment. At the same time, it can reflect the clinical characteristics of children according to the performance and response of children to complete tasks in virtual environment, and VR technology will be presented to children in the same environment as usual, which can better reflect the performance of children and adolescents in the real-life environment. In this paper, the application of VR technology in auxiliary diagnosis and rehabilitation training of children with autism is briefly reviewed to provide new ideas for clinical rehabilitation treatment of children with autism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Face Mask Utilization in the Era of COVID-19: Nigeria Experience

Clement Kevin Edet, Agiriye M. Harry, Anthony Ike Wegbom, Olatunde Raimi, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Victor Alangibi Kiri

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2430420

Background: The use of face masks has been accepted and recommended globally as a tool for COVID-19 protection. The government of Nigeria made wearing of face masks compulsory in public places. However, no evidence has shown user compliance or knowledge. This study investigated the knowledge and utilization of face masks among the Nigerian population.

Methods: This was a web-based cross-sectional survey conducted from July 2 to August 28, 2020, using a convenience sampling technique. This was in adherence to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) guideline of physical/social distancing. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to present the results.

Results:  A total of 811 respondents participated in the survey with the mean age of 36.93±12.17 years. Almost all the respondents 91.9% and 94% were aware that face masks can reduce the spread of COVID-19 and should be worn in the public respectively.  95.3% of the participants had used a face mask as a protection against COVID-19. Furthermore, 90.2% used face masks in the public, 53% used it when entering restricted places, 45.5% when with a suspected case and 30.7% used a mask due to fear of arrest/punishment. The majority of respondents used homemade masks (70%) and 71.2% reused their masks, but maintained poor cleaning culture.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated adequate knowledge and utilization of face masks among the population. The homemade mask was mostly used. However, there was a poor mask cleaning culture among the population. There should be intensive public awareness campaigns through social and mass media on how to clean reusable face masks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viral Haemorrhagic Fever Epidemics and Health Workers: Investigating the Level of Preparedness in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

C. O. Ibeh, O. E. Okwute, A. A. Alali, E. C. Iwunze, J. I. Aleme, V. I. Ogbonna, T. Jamabo, J. Ateke, F. Obinna, T. V. Tarebi, D. S. Ogaji

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2430422

Aim: This study assessed the state of infection prevention and control (IPC) with an emphasis on a hospital’s preparedness for mitigating the spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) to staff.

Methods: This convergent parallel mixed-methods study obtained data on IPC using an observational checklist in clinical departments and units; key informant interviews of stakeholders; and a structured self-administered questionnaire with frontline health workers. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were conducted to determine the IPC practice and level of preparedness of the hospital for the threat of VHFs.

Results: The frontline clinical staff who responded to the questionnaires were aged 31 – 40 years (53.8%), male (50.3%) and medical doctors (72.2%). Some of the respondents had received training in hand washing (41.5%), use of PPE (35.1%) and standard precaution for VHFs (26.8%). Fewer respondents consistently used gloves (36.8%), face masks (8.6%), aprons (8.5%) and sharps containers (26.7%) during patient care. Amenities available for IPC varied across the 184 clinical service points in the hospital’s 19 departments. More service points had waste bins (86%), washing sinks (80%) and running water (74%) while a few had a standard operating procedure for hand washing (6%) and cabinets for storing PPEs (12%). The most significant challenge to the use of IPC measures was the inadequacy of amenities such as full PPE gear, respirator, aprons, and face masks within the clinical service points.

Conclusion: There is a poor level of preparedness for outbreaks of VHFs and this calls for strengthening administrative, engineering and environmental control in health facilities to stem outbreaks among health.

Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Spleen Stiffness for Prediction of Varices in Patients with Hepatitis C Related Cirrhosis Using Transient Elastography

Naglaa El-Toukhy Ramadan El-Toukhy, Sharaf Elsayed Ali Hassanien, Ramy A. Metwaly, Medhat A. Khalil, Badawy A. Abdulaziz

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2430421

Background and Study Aims: Portal hypertension is one of the most important complications of liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of varices among cirrhotic patients is variable. Therefore, endoscopic screening of all patients with liver cirrhosis would result in a large number of unnecessary additional burdens to endoscopic units. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of spleen stiffness measured by transient elastography (Fibroscan) for prediction of the presence of varices in patients with hepatitis C related cirrhosis.

Patients and Methods: The study was carried out on 100 patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis and were divided into 2 groups according to presence or absence of varices by Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy: Group I: patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis with varices; Group II: patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis without varices. Clinical and laboratory parameters, andominal ultrasonography, Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and transient elastography to assess the liver and spleen stiffness were carried out to all studied persons.

Results: Spleen stiffness had significant diagnostic value to differentiate between cirrhotic patients with varices and cirrhotic patients without varices , it had significant diagnostic value in presence of esophageal varices at cut-off (≥46.4 K Pascal) the sensitivity for detection of esophageal varices was 93%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 80%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%; accuracy was 95% and area under the curve was 0.98 denoting that spleen stiffness is a good predictor of esophageal varices.

Conclusion: Spleen stiffness was considered as an excellent predictor of esophageal varices and better than liver stiffness in prediction of esophageal varices presence and had significant diagnostic value to differentiate between the patients with varices and patients without varices at cut off (≥46.4 K Pascal) and it may have a role in variceal grading.

Open Access Review Article

Equity and Accessibility of Antenatal Care Utilization in India

Monica Singh, Ataur Rahman

International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2020/v41i2430431

Aims and Objectives: In this paper, we examine the determinants at both the person and household level, and the connexion of the population to health facilities in childcare, wealth, caste, education and others are responsible for the stability found in Antenatal Care utilization. For this study, data used from the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4 2015-2016) three rounds are available. The findings of the analysis are given in three parts. First, at least 1 Injection of tetanus toxoid (TT), the Iron Folic Acid tablets (IFA), identified as four or more prenatal visits at least 100 days. Second, state profiles of NFHS-4 antenatal care usage are provided to compare patterns. Third, the impact of demand and access variables calculated from multi-level logistics.

Methods: In India, we analyzed a group of 190, 898 women in the Nationwide Family Health Study 4. In order to measure Equity for the maximum ANC usage, concentration and index curves were employed. The multivariable logistic regression model has used to analyze the relevant variables to the usage of complete ANC.

Results: 21% of pregnant women in India use complete ANC, which is 2.3-65.9% throughout the world. 51.6% received four or more ANC visits, 30.8% had at least 100 days of IFA and 91.1% had tetanus toxoid in one or two doses. Complete usage of the ANC in the family, caste and maternal education were unequal. The utilization of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) government register, birth registration and health care coverage has related to improved chances of complete ANC utilization. Lower maternity schooling, lower-income, father intrusiveness during prenatal visits, a higher birth order, puberty and accidental pregnancy were related to lower odds of maximum ANC use.